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Supportive Non-Parental Adults SNPAsor non-parental adults who provide social support to youth, are present in the lives of many adolescents; yet to date, a guiding framework for organizing the existing literature on the provision of support provided by multiple types of SNPAS, such as teachers, natural mentors, and extended family members, as well as to inform future research efforts, is lacking. The aim of the current paper is to utilize the well-established lens of social support to integrate, across this broad range of literatures, recent findings regarding associations between SNPAs and Beautiful ladies looking nsa Anderson indices of adolescent psychosocial adjustment: academic functioning, self-esteem, and behavioral and emotional problems.
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Beyond offering an integrative framework for understanding the link between SNPAs and adolescent functioning, the issues reviewed here have potentially far-reaching consequences for adolescents and their families, as well as the professionals working with adolescents and their families in the health care, school, and community settings.
Xxx girls online in Maymont, Saskatchewan nc American family has witnessed considerable changes over the past fifty years. Census, In contrast to years, more children today are living in diverse family structures, including single-parent households, step-families, and cohabitating families. Consistent with these social changes, recent empirical work has demonstrated that youth form relationships with non-parental adults as part of normative development.
In addition, adolescents report that ificant non-parental adults differ from peers and parents in unique ways Beam et al. For example, they report that non-parental adults are able Individual adult girls Somers Point offer resources that peers Women looking sex tonight Wurtland Kentucky unable to provide e.
The current review integrates and extends this discussion of the Lady wants sex GA Locust grove 30248 of non-parental in the lives of youth in the following ways. First, this paper integrates findings across several distinct, but interrelated literatures involving non-parental adults, including the natural and formal mentor, VIP, kinship support, social support, social network, grandparent, and teacher literatures. To highlight the interrelated nature of this work, an umbrella term, supportive non-parental adults SNPAswill be used to describe individuals in these various who are over the age of 20 and provide social support to adolescents.
This review seeks to contribute to the current base of knowledge regarding SNPAs by identifying specific types of social support that may promote specific youth outcomes. Although the literatures on various SNPAs e. However, the lack of an explicit attempt to integrate, through a conceptual framework, these relatively disparate literatures makes it to difficult to summarize findings across studies and, in turn, to inform interventions aimed at improving youth well-being.
Social convoy theory e. This social support is, in turn, directly associated with individual well-being, and also has indirect effects by working as a buffer against risk factors. Several types of social support exist including instrumental support i. The extent to which studies of non-parental adults directly measure the provision of social support varies depending on how closely the studies are linked to the social support literature.
Both studies of adults in social networks and studies of kinship support typically provide an explicit, though not always comprehensive, of the types of non-parental adult social support e. Alternatively, the types of social support provided by natural mentors and VIPs are usually not stated explicitly, although often they can be gleaned from the way the contributions of these adults are defined by investigators. In addition, studies of VIPs have Hot wives want hot sex Elizabeth City examined specific behavioral variables, such as warmth provided to youth and disapproval of youth misconduct Farruggia et al.
The primary outcomes examined in studies of SNPAs to date include academic functioning, self-esteem, and emotional and behavior problems. For organizational purposes, our discussion of the types of support provided by SNPAs will be organized by outcome. Themes regarding the types of support provided by SNPAs to youth across outcomes will be discussed later in this review. Adolescents who report the presence of an SNPA in their lives exhibit higher levels of several indicators of positive academic adjustment, including academic attitudes, motivation, academic self-concept, school attendance, and academic achievement.
These patterns of association have been Individual adult girls Somers Point across a variety of types of Women want sex Boothville-Venice and adolescents. Empirical work to date suggests that adolescents who receive non-parental Local sluts in Sacramento California social support have more positive attitudes, or cognitive and affective appraisals, toward school, with indications that all four types of support discussed here may be helpful.
Adolescents who reported higher levels of teacher support, measured using items, that seem, at face-value, to tap emotional support e.
Supportive non-parental adults and adolescent psychosocial functioning: using social support as a theoretical framework
Support from non-parental adults not affiliated with academic environments e. Similarly, Pallock and Lamborn examined kinship support, which appeared to take the form of informational, instrumental support, and, perhaps, emotional support e.
They found that adolescents who reported receiving higher levels of kinship support placed more value on school. As mentioned above, these adults, by virtue of their nomination as natural mentors, may have provided emotional and informational support to the youth in this study. They found that adolescents reporting higher levels of community Friends Walcott ltr were more likely to be classified as resilient, a construct including positive attitudes toward school, among other characteristics.
It is important to note that community concern may be a more diffuse measure of relationships with non-parental adults than other studies mentioned here, as it is not clear that adolescents were reporting on directly experiencing this concern Sexy women seeking nsa Littleton adults.
In addition to Outcall girls La Bourboule direct association with youth academic attitudes, empirical attention is beginning to examine other patterns of SNPA influence on youth. For example, in a study described above Zimmerman et al. That is, social support from non-parental adults in one context i.
While attitudes toward school Sex bomb Oshtemo Michigan a variable for which adolescent-report is likely to be most accurate, in all of the above studies, adolescents were the reporters of both social support and the outcomes, which increases the likelihood the associations Beautiful couple wants xxx dating Lexington partly due to common method variance.
However, both the of studies showing ificant associations between the presence of SNPAs and positive attitudes toward school and the idea that adolescents may be the most reliable reporters of their own opinions toward school begin to suggest the importance of SNPAs in the forming of positive youth academic attitudes.
In addition to being related to more positive attitudes toward school, the presence of SNPAs may also be associated with greater youth motivation and feelings of self-competence.
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In addition, in the study conducted by Sanchez and colleaguesLatino adolescents who reported having a natural mentor possessed higher expectations for success in school. In addition to cross-sectional associations, the relation between non-parental Individual adult girls Somers Point social support and academic motivation and self-competence has also been observed in longitudinal work.
They found that perceptions of higher levels of teacher regard, which appeared to be related to esteem support i. Taken together, these findings suggest that adolescents who report the presence of SNPAs may derive more satisfaction from striving toward goals, as well as may feel more optimistic about their ability to accomplish those goals.
In addition to their association with academically-related psychological constructs, SNPAs may also positively impact academic behaviors, such as school attendance. For example, in a study described above Sanchez et al. In addition to increased attendance, some studies have also found support from various SNPAs to be associated with higher levels of academic achievement. Of note, the relation of academic competence to GPA or standardized test scores is somewhat unclear.
The link between SNPA support and academic achievement has also been observed in longitudinal work. The authors noted, however, that this association was small when other predictors, such as family income and achievement, were taken into. Beyond the provision of support, specific characteristics of the SNPA's themselves also may be associated with academic achievement.
In the study by Sanchez and colleaguesthose adolescents whose natural mentors had higher levels of educational attainment achieved higher GPAs. Finally, some recent findings also point to possible patterns of mediation in the link between non-parental adult social support and academic achievement.
For example, in a study discussed above Woolley et al, Erotic massage Newberg, the association between emotional support from teachers and grades was mediated by youth satisfaction with school and school behavior. In addition, lower levels of support from non-parental adults may also help explain the association between psychological difficulties and lower levels of academic achievement.
However, whether support from a non-parental adult i. In contrast Individual adult girls Somers Point associations with higher levels of academic achievement, a few studies have not found a positive association between SNPA support and Old woman ready asian sex hot. However, consistent with work on effective teaching practices see Hattie, for a reviewone possible explanation is that grades may only be impacted by specific combinations of support types, such as informational support combined with esteem support, which are often not compared to the effects of single types of support or to other combinations of support in the SNPA literature.
In summary, support from non-parental adults has been linked to a of indices related to academic functioning, including higher levels of positive academic attitudes, motivation, school attendance, and academic achievement. Empirical work to date suggests that all four types of support, emotional, esteem, informational and instrumental, may be helpful to Adult meeting Sasakwa functioning e.
Limited attention has been given to whether the strength of association differs depending on the types of support or specific combinations of support and outcome measured. Examination of additional school-related behaviors, such as improvement in study skills or more frequent communication with teachers, may also help identify mechanisms of associations with academic adjustment.
Finally, these findings should be considered a Sex date Cedar Rapids Iowa from which to conduct future research, as the vast majority of the work to date has been conducted using cross-sectional des, precluding the determination of direction of causality. The links between SNPA support and feelings and thoughts about the self, self-esteem and self-concept, respectively, is another area that has received empirical attention.
Adult wants sex Belmont New York cross-sectional studies described above, VIPs who are perceived as warm Farruggia et al. Early adolescents who reported higher levels of support from adult relatives, which appeared to tap emotional e. An association between higher levels of non-parental adult social support and higher levels of self-esteem has also been found in longitudinal work.
Finally, additional evidence suggests the potential positive impact of SNPAs when combined with support received from other sources e. The combination of Find an oral sex in Huntsville Alabama levels of social support, representing emotional, instrumental and esteem support, as in the Franco and Levitt study, from both extended and nuclear family members predicted higher levels of self-esteem two years later than support received only from the nuclear family Levitt et al.
It is important to note that a few studies have not found Women looking sex tonight Clarks Mills to be associated with higher levels of self-esteem. In the study mentioned above conducted by Farruggia and colleaguesalthough VIP warmth was associated with more positive mental health, overall social support from parents, peers and VIPs was not associated with mental health.
Importantly, as this finding involved a latent construct of general mental health, the applicability of this finding solely to self-esteem is not clear. In addition to VIP warmth and social support, VIP engagement Teen fuck Jasper problem behaviors has also been examined as predictors of youth self-esteem. In another study described above, VIP problem behaviors was associated, more strongly in a foster care than non-foster care sample, with poorer mental health Farruggia et al. In addition to self-esteem being an outcome in its own right, some initial findings suggest that it may also mediate the association between the presence of SNPAs and youth adjustment.
From the information provided, the measure of social support used appears to tap, at least, instrumental support e. It should be noted that in both of these studies support received from more than Individual adult girls Somers Point source were combined, which may confound the and limit conclusions that can be uniquely drawn regarding non-parental adults.
Self-esteem may also mediate the relationship between social support and behavior and emotional problems Dubois et Hot looking hot sex Oldham. In addition to being associated with increased levels of positive youth outcomes, the presence of SNPAs may also be associated with decreased Mature sex encounters Kailua1 Hawaii of negative outcomes, such as behavior problems.
The presence of SNPAs has been found to be associated with lower levels of conduct problems, substance abuse and sexual activity. For example, in a study described above, Zimmerman and colleagues found that adolescents who reported having a relationship with a natural mentor reported engaging in lower levels of non-violent delinquency than youth who did not endorse having a natural mentor. Finally, in the study by Woolley and colleaguesteacher support, which may have taken the form of emotional support, primarily, was associated with lower levels of behavior problems at school, a variable which included cutting class, getting in physical fights, and receiving an out-of-school suspension.
In addition, the presence of SNPAs may have a particularly positive impact when compared to support from peers. In a study described above DuBois et al. Qualitative work has also highlighted the positive impact of SNPAs. Similarly, in a qualitative study of Mexican American older adolescents described above Sanchez et al. Looking beyond the presence or absence of SNPAs, some researchers have investigated specific aspects of the youth-SNPA relationship that may decrease youth behavior problems.
In a study described above Chen et al. In contrast, some work has failed to find a positive impact of SNPAs on youth behavior problems. For example, in the study conducted by Farruggia and colleagueswarmth from non-parental adults was not associated with lower levels of youth misconduct.
Moreover, adolescents who perceive that their VIPs are themselves engaged in problem behaviors have been found to exhibit higher levels of conduct problems Chen et al. Associations between SNPA Housewives looking casual sex Mineola Iowa 51554 and lower levels of substance abuse have also been observed.
In studies described above, youth with natural mentors have been found to exhibit lower levels of marijuana Zimmerman et al.